Risk and Safety Issues in Surgery: Inpatient XVI focuses on increasing surgeons’ understanding of the interrelationship between non-technical skills and surgical outcomes. There is a growing awareness of the need to provide surgeons with training in—and establish ways to validate—non-technical skills that, when lacking, may adversely affect surgical performance. These skills include maintaining situational awareness in the operating room and communicating effectively, both with patients and with other staff members. This case-based course provides evidence-based strategies to help surgeons better engage all members of the surgical team, maintain situational awareness and, ultimately, improve patient outcomes.