Risk and Safety Issues in Nephrology XVI explores effective ways to support patient adherence during dialysis, manage patients with complex cases and low health literacy, and mitigate the risk of misdiagnosis due to cognitive bias. Proficiency in these areas is vital, given the multiple areas of risk for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the critical need for effective and sustainable patient safety strategies. CKD affects 8% to 16% of the world’s population. Patients with this condition often present unique challenges as nephrology healthcare professionals attempt to provide renal care complicated by frequent hospitalizations, unforeseen complications, and repeated diagnostic or life-saving procedures.