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Ellington TD, Henley SJ, Wilson RJ, Wu M, Richardson LC. Trends in solitary plasmacytoma, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and plasma cell myeloma incidence and myeloma mortality by racial-ethnic group, United States 2003-2016. Cancer Med.2021;10(1):386-395.

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Nathanael R et al. With equal access, African American patients have superior survival compared to white patients with multiple myeloma: a VA study. Blood 2019; 133 (24): 2615–2618.

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Ailawadhi, S et al. Racial disparities in treatment patterns and outcomes among patients with multiple myeloma: a SEER-Medicare analysis. Blood Advances, 2019. 3(20), 2986–2994. 

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American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans 2019-2021. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 2019. Available at: 
Landgren O, et al. Racial disparities in the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies: a population-based study of 12,482 persons from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Leukemia 2014; 28(7):1537-1542.
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U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau Quick Facts. Available at: Accessed April 22, 2019.

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